Are There Missing Books of the Bible? (2023)

I remember when I finished reading the Bible for the first time. I was happy with the accomplishment but also sad that there were no more books. It did not take long for me to realize that God’s Word is inexhaustible. Some 20 years later and many more times through the Bible, I realize that I’ll never “finish reading” God’s Word.

Yet after that first read through I was indeed disappointed that I’d read the whole story – that is until I picked up my friend’s Bible. She was from a Catholic background and as I thumbed through her Bible, I realized that there were seven books that I’d never read before. Were these Scripture too? Was my Bible missing books?

On occasion that question will press upon believers. In the early 2000’s, with the release of Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code, this question became prominent again. This time the concern was over a different set of books that some thought were taken out of the Bible.

So, do we have the complete Bible? Are there books that are missing?

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How Did the Bible Come Together?

Are There Missing Books of the Bible? (1)

There are three different concerns when this question is asked. From a Roman Catholic perspective, there are seven books which those of a Protestant persuasion do not consider to be inspired, so these books are “missing” from their Bible. From an Latter Day Saints’ perspective, the entire Book of Mormon is “missing.” Others will point to the “lost books of the Bible” as being removed from the canon during the first couple hundred years after Jesus. So, are there books missing from the 66 books of your Bible?

To answer that question, it is helpful to understand how the Bible came to be. It is common in our day to picture a group of men in the 4th century with a deeply engrained political agenda filtering through a large number of possible Scripture books and declaring them Scripture. As if some were saying, “we like the letter to the Hebrews so we will call that Scripture, we like Paul, but we aren’t big fans of the Shepherd of Hermas or the Gospel of Thomas. The Revelation of John fits our agenda but the Apocalypse of Peter does not, so we’ll cancel that one.”

In this narrative reconstruction it’s as if this group of men all voted and landed on the 27 books we now consider the New Testament. But that’s not exactly how it went down. I am focusing on the New Testament here because if you can establish these as canon, then the Old Testament should not be difficult. Jesus and the apostles declared these 39 books to be the Jewish Scriptures, so we affirm the same. We know that Jesus held these 39 books because of what he said in Luke 24:44;

“Then he said to them, ‘These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.’”

Moses, Prophets, Psalms is the typical threefold Jewish division of the Scriptures (Law, Prophets, and Writings). This being the accepted Jewish canon has not the subject of much debate. The New Testament, however, is a different story.

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(Video) 10 REJECTED BOOKS OF THE BIBLE | History Countdown

Were Books Removed from the Bible?

Are There Missing Books of the Bible? (2)

I wish I could tell you that we already had a firm grasp on the 27 books within the first century, but that is simply not true. The oldest extant list that matches our 27 books is that of Athanasius’ letter in 367 AD. This is where the charge by some that the New Testament canon was adopted in the 4th century comes from. It sounds legit because it has an element of truth to it, but it’s not the whole story. In truth, all 27 books of the New Testament were likely completely by 100 AD. They were widely read and considered to be Scripture in the next 100 years. Many early church writers referred to New Testament passages as Scripture.

(Video) The Lost Books of the Bible

What really happened in the 4th century is that a council recognized what had been practiced in the church since the days of the apostles. A heretic, named Marcion, forced the church to make explicit what had been practiced for centuries. Marcion picked which books he liked and which ones he did not. It caused the question of canon to be asked. This is why in the 4th century the early church had to put something in writing which recognizes which books are authoritative and which ones are not.

There is an important distinction to be made here. The canon is not an authorized collection of writings (in that the church conferred authority or approval upon a list of books). Rather, the canon is a collection of authoritative writings. The church recognized their authority, it did not give them authority.

How did they recognize which books were authoritative? Three rules for canonicity were used. First, was it written by or tied closely to an apostle? Secondly, was it widely recognized by the churches? Third, did it conform to the rule of faith—basic orthodox Christianity that had been orally handed down from the apostles and Jesus himself?

The question of whether or not books were “removed from the Bible” is somewhat nonsensical given the process. Were some books considered not-authoritative? Yes. Were they removed? No. They were recognized as not being God-breathed.

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What Are the Apocryphal Books?

Are There Missing Books of the Bible? (3)

One set of extra-biblical books are called apocryphal or deuterocanonical. These are the books that are typically found in a Catholic Bible. The books are: Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Baruch (+Letter of Jeremiah), Prayer of Azariah, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, 1 & 2 Maccabees.

These are Jewish literature written in what is known as the intertestamental period (430BC-AD40). These books can be helpful for understanding history, some have entertaining stories, and still others sound similar to wisdom texts or Psalms and Proverbs. So why were they not considered authoritative?

(Video) More than 66 Books? | Voddie Baucham, Gino Jennings, Michael Brown, James White

For one, the Jewish people themselves did not regard these works to be the same as God’s Word. They were never cited by Jesus or the New Testament authors (though that is true of some others in the OT), but more importantly by the way Jesus spoke of the Old Testament division, it is clear that he would not have considered these to be on par with Scripture. The Apocryphal books do not claim for themselves the same type of authority as other Old Testament literature. Likely, these book slipped in when Jerome placed them in the Latin Vulgate. He was uncertain of where to place them—though he found them beneficial—so he put them in as disputed literature, but eventually they were accepted by the Catholic Church as Scripture. It’s worth noting that the formal acceptance happened at the Council of Trent in 1546, perhaps as a reaction to Protestantism.

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What Are the “Lost Books” of the Bible?

Are There Missing Books of the Bible? (4)

Another set of extra-canonical books are known as pseudepigraphal and sometimes Lost Books of the Bible, or Gnostic gospels. These were mainly written during the first few centuries after Christ and have unknown authors. Pseudepigrapha means fake author; they are falsely attributed to an apostle. As an example, the Gospel of Peter was not written by the apostle Peter. This alone answers the question of why they were not accepted as canonical. But a closer perusal of their content also would make it obvious why these are not recognized as Scripture.

There is also an Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Secrets of Enoch, Psalms of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to name a few). It too fails the marks of authenticity and being God-breathed. On occasion they will not only contradict other writings, but they do not match up to the rule of faith. These works typically fail all three tests of canonicity.

There are some letters and writings from the first couple centuries after Christ which are helpful and beneficial (1 Clement, Shephard of Hermas, Didache, etc.) but were not considered to be authoritative. Some of these, like the Shephard of Hermas, were widely read and considered to be beneficial but they ultimately failed the test of being “self-authenticating.”

What about the books which the Latter Day Saints consider to be Scripture? This question actually falls under a different category, new revelation. These too would fail tests of canonicity, but they also fail in regards to whether the canon of Scripture is still open. That is a topic which extends beyond the boundaries of this piece. Yet it is enough to say that the Book of Mormon contradicts the Bible in several places. Furthermore, orthodox Christians reject Joseph Smith as a prophet.

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(Video) 7 LOST BOOKS Of The Bible - The Book Of Enoch? The Book Of Jasher?

How Can We Be Confident That the Bible Is God's Complete Word?

Are There Missing Books of the Bible? (5)

With all of these disputed books, how can we be confident that we have God’s complete Word? Ultimately our trust in Scripture is a trust in Christ and His ability to faithfully rule over His Bride. Yes, we have been filled with schism. Yes, there are differences of interpretation. But Jesus clearly believed that Scripture (at least the OT) was authoritative and infallible. He believed that the history which was presented was legitimate. Are we to believe that the God who governed all of history so that “at just the right time” a baby was born in a manger, is unable to govern history in such a way to preserve His Word? Of course not.

You can have confidence in your Bible. You can have confidence that the books you have in your Bible are indeed the Words of Scripture. The Scriptures are self-attesting. Reading God’s Word in 1 Timothy will do something different than reading the words of 1 Clement. One is God-breathed, the other is not. Yes, you can find helpful things in 1 Clement, but it will not be self-attesting in the same way 1 Timothy will be. There is not the same power in 1 Clement that there is in 1 Timothy. We can have confidence in God’s Word because it, unlike other literature, does not return empty or void. God’s Word is living and active. Literature is not.

The 66 Books Are Sufficient

That bittersweet moment when I finished reading the Bible quickly dissipated. I soon discovered that God’s Word is not like any other literature that I had read. It is living, it is inexhaustible. I have been a student of the Bible for decades now and it still opens up to me whole new ways of seeing myself, the world, and God. Because of this truth, we do not need other books. The 66 books we have are enough to tell us everything we need to know in order to please God. They are sufficient.

If you are interested in furthering your study of this important topic, I would recommend How We Got the Bible by Timothy Paul Jones, Truth Matters by Andreas Kostenberger, Taking God at His Word by Kevin DeYoung, and 40 Questions on Interpreting the Bible by Robert Plummer.

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Mike Leake is husband to Nikki and father to Isaiah and Hannah. He is also the lead pastor at Calvary of Neosho, MO. Mike is the author of Torn to Heal and Jesus Is All You Need. His writing home is http://mikeleake.net and you can connect with him on Twitter @mikeleake.

FAQs

What are the 7 books removed from the Bible? ›

During the Reformation, for largely doctrinal reasons Protestants removed seven books from the Old Testament (1 and 2 Maccabees, Sirach, Wisdom, Baruch, Tobit, and Judith) and parts of two others (Daniel and Esther), even though these books had been regarded as canonical since the beginning of Church history.

Who removed the Apocrypha from the Bible? ›

Robert Haldane criticised this policy. The British and Foreign Bible Society had in fact dropped the Apocrypha from its bibles published in English in 1804. This decision broke with the tradition of Myles Coverdale, of consolidating the Apocrypha between the two Testaments.

Who destroyed books of the Bible? ›

In A.D. 301-304, the Roman Emperor Diocletian burned thousands of copies of the Bible, commanded that all Bibles be destroyed and decreed that any home with a Bible in it should be burned. In fact, he even built a monument over what he thought was the last surviving Bible.

How many times have the Bible been changed? ›

Over 30,000 changes were made, of which more than 5,000 represent differences between the Greek text used for the Revised Version and that used as the basis of the King James Version. Most of the other changes were made in the interest of consistency or modernization.

Where was the book of Adam and Eve found? ›

The Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan (also known as The Book of Adam and Eve) is a 6th-century Christian extracanonical work found in Ge'ez, translated from an Arabic original. It does not form part of the canon of any church.

WHO removed the 7 books? ›

They don't seem to realize that Luther removed seven entire books and parts of three others from it for no other reason than that they didn't fit his idea of “what God really wanted.” Luther claimed they celebrated Judaism and because he wanted to justify his challenging the authority of the Catholic Church, he threw ...

Why was the Book of Enoch not in the Bible? ›

The Book of Enoch was considered as scripture in the Epistle of Barnabas (4:3) and by many of the early Church Fathers, such as Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus and Tertullian, who wrote c. 200 that the Book of Enoch had been rejected by the Jews because it contained prophecies pertaining to Christ.

What is a real name of Jesus? ›

Jesus' name in Hebrew was “Yeshua” which translates to English as Joshua.

Do Christians accept the Apocrypha? ›

New Testament apocrypha—books similar to those in the New Testament but almost universally rejected by Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants—include several gospels and lives of apostles. Some were written by early Jewish Christians (see the Gospel according to the Hebrews).

Does Apocrypha mention Jesus? ›

The New Testament apocrypha (singular apocryphon) are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives.

Did Martin Luther take the Apocrypha out of the Bible? ›

Luther included the deuterocanonical books in his translation of the German Bible, but he did relocate them to after the Old Testament, calling them "Apocrypha, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read."

How accurate is the Bible? ›

Modern archaeology has helped us realize that the Bible is historically accurate even in the smallest of details. There have been thousands of archaeological discoveries in the past century that support every book of the Bible.

Do the original Gospels still exist? ›

The original manuscripts of the New Testament books are not known to have survived. The autographs are believed to have been lost or destroyed a long time ago.

Which Bible is the true Bible? ›

The New American Standard Bible is a literal translation from the original texts, well suited to study because of its accurate rendering of the source texts. It follows the style of the King James Version but uses modern English for words that have fallen out of use or changed their meanings.

What language did Adam & Eve speak? ›

Traditional Jewish exegesis such as Midrash says that Adam spoke the Hebrew language because the names he gives Eve – Isha and Chava – only make sense in Hebrew.

Where is the original Bible located? ›

Written on vellum or calf's skin, the codex has been in the Vatican Library at least since 1475. Along with Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus is one of the most important manuscripts of both the Greek Old and New Testaments.

Is the Quran older than the Bible? ›

Knowing that versions written in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament does predate the Quran, Christians reason the Quran as being derived directly or indirectly from the earlier materials. Muslims understand the Quran to be direct knowledge from an omnipotent God.

What religion did Adam and Eve believe in? ›

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. They are central to the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors.

What's the most original Bible? ›

The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years.
...
Geneva Bible
Full nameGeneva Bible
Other namesBreeches Bible
AbbreviationGNV
NT published1557
6 more rows

Who wrote the book of Enoch? ›

The 3rd Book of Enoch, the Hebrew Enoch, or 3 Enoch, is a Rabbinic text originally written in Hebrew usually dated to the fifth century CE. Some experts believe it was written by Rabbi Ishmael (second century CE), familiar with both 1 Enoch and 2 Enoch.

Why was Apocrypha left out? ›

They reasoned that not printing the Apocrypha within the Bible would prove to be less costly to produce. Since that time most modern editions of the Bible and reprintings of the King James Bible omit the Apocrypha section. Modern non-Catholic reprintings of the Clementine Vulgate commonly omit the Apocrypha section.

Why is Tobit not in the Bible? ›

Canonical status

Catholic and Orthodox Christianity include it in the Biblical canon. As Protestants follow the Masoretic canon, they therefore do not include Tobit in their standard canon, but do recognise it in the category of deuterocanonical books called the apocrypha.

Why was there a list of forbidden books? ›

The Index condemned religious and secular texts alike, grading works by the degree to which they were seen to be repugnant to the church. The aim of the list was to protect church members from reading theologically, culturally, or politically disruptive books.

How many heavens are there? ›

In religious or mythological cosmology, the seven heavens refer to seven levels or divisions of the Heavens.

Where is the modern day Garden of Eden? ›

The location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis as the source of four tributaries. Various suggestions have been made for its location: at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia (now Iraq) where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea; and in Armenia.

Who was the tallest person in the Bible? ›

Og's destruction is told in Psalms 135:11 and 136:20 as one of many great victories for the nation of Israel, and the Book of Amos 2:9 may refer to Og as "the Amorite" whose height was like the height of the cedars and whose strength was like that of the oaks.

Did Jesus has a last name? ›

We often refer to Jesus as Jesus Christ, and some people assume that Christ is Jesus's last name. But Christ is actually a title, not a last name. So if Christ isn't a last name, what was Jesus's last name? The answer is Jesus didn't have a formal last name or surname like we do today.

How tall was Jesus? ›

He may have stood about 5-ft.-5-in. (166 cm) tall, the average man's height at the time.

What is Jesus's actual birthday? ›

In the New Testament there is no mention of Jesus' date of birth. Even the Encyclopaedia of Theology and the Church says: "The true birthday of Jesus is unknown". This is not surprising, because people at that time were completely unaware of the year and the day. To this day the true birthday of Jesus is still unclear.

Is it wrong to read the Apocrypha? ›

Put simply, as Anglicans, we believe that the Apocrypha is well worth reading in the church today, but that there is a difference between apocryphal writings and canonical Holy Scripture. Theologically, we don't believe or teach anything from the Apocrypha that isn't also affirmed by the Old and New Testaments.

What religion follows the Apocrypha? ›

Now the Catholic Church is not alone in accepting the Books which Protestants label as "Apocrypha." The Coptic, Greek and Russian Orthodox churches also recognize these Books as inspired by God. In 1950 an edition of the OT containing all these Books was officially approved by the Holy Synod of the Greek church.

Is the Apocrypha true? ›

Apocrypha per se are outside the canon, not considered divinely inspired but regarded as worthy of study by the faithful. Pseudepigrapha are spurious works ostensibly written by a biblical figure.

What does the Apocrypha tell us? ›

Many of the what we call Apocryphal acts of the apostles, which are stories of the adventures of the apostles after Jesus sent them off to preach the word, feature women converting to Christianity and then deciding to leave their husbands, or not have sex with them, or never get married in the first place.

Why are the lost gospels not in the Bible? ›

One possible reason they were not included in the emerging New Testament is they were not meant to be part of a wider canon or to be read as scripture in church - instead each one was meant to be read by an elect few.

Is Enoch an apocrypha? ›

Enoch, the seventh patriarch in the book of Genesis, was the subject of abundant apocryphal literature, especially during the Hellenistic period of Judaism (3rd century bc to 3rd century ad).

Who decided which books to include in the Bible? ›

Eventually, the question was taken up by Church councils. At the Council of Hippo, held in north Africa in AD 393, a group of church leaders recognized a list of books that they believed to be scripture. Later, the Council of Carthage affirmed that decision in AD 397.

Why was the book of Judith removed from the Bible? ›

Reasons for its exclusion include the lateness of its composition, possible Greek origin, open support of the Hasmonean dynasty (to which the early rabbinate was opposed), and perhaps the brash and seductive character of Judith herself.

Is purgatory in the Bible? ›

Roman Catholic Christians who believe in purgatory interpret passages such as 2 Maccabees 12:41–46, 2 Timothy 1:18, Matthew 12:32, Luke 23:43, 1 Corinthians 3:11–3:15 and Hebrews 12:29 as support for prayer for purgatorial souls who are believed to be within an active interim state for the dead undergoing purifying ...

Is the Bible historically proven? ›

The early stories are held to have a historical basis that was reconstructed centuries later, and the stories possess at most only a few tiny fragments of genuine historical memory, which by their definition are only those points which are supported by archaeological discoveries.

Can the Bible be trusted? ›

The biblical manuscripts have been reliably transmitted from the authors to us today. What should a person look for when checking to see if an ancient text has been corrupted? The person should look for other surviving copies of that text to cross reference for variants.

How many contradictions are in the Bible? ›

And in 1860, William Henry Burr produced a list of 144 self-contradictions in the Bible.

What language did Jesus speak? ›

Most religious scholars and historians agree with Pope Francis that the historical Jesus principally spoke a Galilean dialect of Aramaic. Through trade, invasions and conquest, the Aramaic language had spread far afield by the 7th century B.C., and would become the lingua franca in much of the Middle East.

Who created the God? ›

We ask, "If all things have a creator, then who created God?" Actually, only created things have a creator, so it's improper to lump God with his creation. God has revealed himself to us in the Bible as having always existed.

Where is the Ark of the Covenant? ›

According to church leaders, the Ark of the Covenant has for centuries been closely guarded in Aksum at the Church of St. Mary of Zion. Not even the high priest of Aksum can enter its resting chamber. Its sole custodian is a virgin monk who cannot leave the sacred grounds until his death.

Who destroyed the original Bible? ›

In A.D. 301-304, the Roman Emperor Diocletian burned thousands of copies of the Bible, commanded that all Bibles be destroyed and decreed that any home with a Bible in it should be burned. In fact, he even built a monument over what he thought was the last surviving Bible.

How many times has the Bible been changed? ›

Over 30,000 changes were made, of which more than 5,000 represent differences between the Greek text used for the Revised Version and that used as the basis of the King James Version. Most of the other changes were made in the interest of consistency or modernization.

What religion is the Bible based on? ›

The Bible is the holy scripture of the Christian religion, purporting to tell the history of the Earth from its earliest creation to the spread of Christianity in the first century A.D. Both the Old Testament and the New Testament have undergone changes over the centuries, including the the publication of the King ...

What are the 14 missing books of the Bible? ›

This book contains: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, The Book of Tobit, The Book of Susanna, Additions to Esther, The Book of Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, The Epistle of Jeremiah, The Prayer of Azariah, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasses, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, Book of Enoch, Book of Jubilees, Gospel of ...

What are the book of Enoch and other lost books? ›

The book of Enoch is a collection of five books that were removed from the canonical bible in the 19th century. It includes the book of Watchers, the book of Parables, the Book of the Luminaries of the Heaven, The book of Dream and Vision, and the Epistle of Enoch.

What are the missing books of the New Testament? ›

From these we can identify five principal "fringe" books later omitted from the canon proper. They are: the Didache (or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles), the Shepherd of Hermas, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Epistle of Clement.

How many true books of the Bible are there? ›

Books of the Bible. Written under the supernatural guidance of the Holy Spirit by laymen and scholars, commoners and nobility, the Bible is as unique as it is profound, containing 66 ancient books that have shaped laws, influenced culture and inspired billions to faith over three millennia.

What is the oldest Bible on earth? ›

Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus, Oxford.

Why is the Book of Enoch rejected? ›

The Book of Enoch was considered as scripture in the Epistle of Barnabas (4:3) and by many of the early Church Fathers, such as Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus and Tertullian, who wrote c. 200 that the Book of Enoch had been rejected by the Jews because it contained prophecies pertaining to Christ.

Why is the Book of Enoch left out? ›

I Enoch was at first accepted in the Christian Church but later excluded from the biblical canon. Its survival is due to the fascination of marginal and heretical Christian groups, such as the Manichaeans, with its syncretic blending of Iranian, Greek, Chaldean, and Egyptian elements.

Which book of the Bible is Enoch found? ›

Enoch in the Book of Genesis

Enoch appears in the Book of Genesis of the Pentateuch as the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs. Genesis recounts that each of the pre-Flood Patriarchs lived for several centuries.

Is the book of Tobit true? ›

Tobit is a work of fiction with some historical references, combining prayers, ethical exhortation, humour and adventure with elements drawn from folklore, wisdom tale, travel story, romance and comedy.

Why is the book of Susanna not in the Bible? ›

Susanna's story comes from Greek manuscripts of the Book of Daniel and is included in the Christian but not Jewish canon. It was written during the Hellenistic period, after Alexander the Great's conquests.

What is the original Bible with all the books? ›

The Ethiopian Bible is the oldest and most complete bible on earth. Written in Ge'ez an ancient dead language of Ethiopia it's nearly 800 years older than the King James Version and contains 81-88 books compared to 66.

What books were removed from the King James Bible? ›

Description
  • All 15 books of the Apocrypha: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, The Book of Tobit, The Book of Susanna, Additions to Esther, The Book of Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, The Epistle of Jeremiah, The Prayer of Azariah, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasses, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
  • The Book of Enoch.

Videos

1. Bible Secrets Revealed: The Forbidden Scriptures Lost to Time (S1, E3) | Full Episode
(HISTORY)
2. Why Did The Vatican Remove 14 Secret Books From The Bible In 1684?
(Unexplained Mysteries)
3. What are the lost books of the Bible?
(Got Questions Ministries)
4. What About the Lost Books of the Bible?
(The Gospel Coalition)
5. #43 ARE THERE ERRORS IN THE BIBLE, OR ARE THERE MISSING BOOKS FROM THE BIBLE?
(DTBM)
6. Is the Book of Enoch one of the Missing Books of The Bible | HEROES (ENOCH)
(THE BEAT by Allen Parr)
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